European societies and health systems are diverse. Europe has in effect three different health systems that deal with children at the primary care level with differing results. Paediatric care in Europe is provided by paediatricians, general practitioners, family physicians, nurses and midwives. Standards for primary medical care for children in Europe do not exist. The aim of this group is (a) to establish a sustainable European research network which will work with a recently created database of performance indicators after a systematic review of the literature and (b) to coordinate a consensus process through several workshops with interdisciplinary participation of European experts in paediatrics and child health and other stakeholders. COSI will publish a core set of selected performance indicators and standards for medical primary care of children in Europe. The core set of quality indicators/standards will specifically describe the desirable performance of any medical provider in the field of primary child care under optimal conditions in Europe. This project has the potential to improve child health through harmonization of effective interventions in diverse child care services throughout Europe.